On January 6, 1941, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered the annual State of the Union address and it was especially memorable because he identified Four Freedoms that he believed all people should enjoy:
Freedom of speech
Freedom of worship
Freedom from want
Freedom from fear
WWII had been going on in Europe for fourteen months when Roosevelt gave the speech. Hitler’s armies had already conquered Poland, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. And his air force was busy trying to bomb Britain into submission. On the other side of the globe, Japan was continuing its invasion of China.
Roosevelt’s speech was a response to this ongoing fascist aggression, and it identified what he believed was America’s responsibility to oppose totalitarianism and defend basic human rights throughout the world. It was well received because most people understood that freedom comes with responsibilities. But many Americans were wary of getting involved in the war, so the U.S didn’t enter it until the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in December. In the meantime, Roosevelt succeeded in getting the Lend-Lease Act passed in March. It allowed the U.S. to provide material support to the Allies, fulfilling Roosevelt’s earlier promise to make America the “Arsenal of Democracy”.
The majority of Americans considered the Four Freedoms important within their own country too. But conservative Republicans criticized Roosevelt’s speech as an attempt to justify government regulations and social welfare programs. The right-wing faction of the party wasn’t very successful then. But they never gave up, and today they’re holding their party and the entire United States hostage.
American voters responded to the right-wing extremism of Republican Pres. Donald Trump and his supporters in the November 2018 midterm elections by electing many more Democrats – enough to win control of the U.S. House of Representatives.
Soon after the election, progressive billionaire philanthropist Tom Steyer announced 5 Rights he thinks all Democrats should champion in the upcoming 2020 elections. They are:
The Right To An Equal Vote: So everyone has an equal voice to demand justice from our government and can vote with no discrimination and no barriers.
The Right to Clean Air & Clean Water: So everyone can breathe fresh air and drink clean water, free from industrial poisons.
The Right to Learn: So everyone has the right to a free, quality, public education from preschool through college and on to advanced skills training.
The Right to a Living Wage: So no one needs to work more than one full-time job.
The Right to Health: So everyone has a chance to live a healthy life, with universal healthcare.
These rights are the modern successors to Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms.
U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower approved the implementation of a secret, multifaceted plan by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) on March 17, 1960, to covertly remove Cuban leader Fidel Castro from power. Castro had assumed power in early 1959 after the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and was determined to do whatever it took to end Cuba’s neocolonial relationship with the U.S. Castro’s agrarian reforms, his nationalization of American-owned businesses in Cuba, and his economic agreements with the Soviet Union had convinced Eisenhower that he was a dangerous communist.
The Eisenhower administration’s decision to treat Castro as a Cold War adversary resulted in a steady deterioration in the relationship between Cuba and the U.S. during the remainder of 1960. Things came to a head on October 19 when the U.S. imposed a trade embargo against Cuba, and the next day the U.S. Ambassador to Cuba, Philip Bonsal, was recalled.
About a week later Monsignor Bryan O. Walsh, the director of Catholic Charities for the Archdiocese of Miami, got a call from the State Department asking him to go to Washington, D.C. There he was asked to participate in a clandestine operation to smuggle Cuban children into the U.S. He agreed and was eventually given unprecedented authority to issue “visa waivers” that were smuggled into Cuba and allowed any unaccompanied Cuban child between the ages of 6 to 16 to ostensibly study in the U.S. The U.S. government did not, however, create a special visa program for the children’s parents.
Red squirrels can be annoying because they’re so noisy – chattering loudly at anything they don’t like from their perches in the trees. But they can also be greedy, mean and stupid.
I recently visited Michigan and stayed with a friend at his family’s cabin on a lake. At least once a day we enjoyed the beautiful scenery by sitting quietly in Adirondack chairs on the cabin’s lawn. The local chipmunks came up to us to beg for food the first time I sat in one of the chairs, and my friend explained that he often threw handfuls of sunflower seeds to them.
I told him I was a bit confused because there was a small live animal trap near the chairs, and I presumed he was using it to catch troublesome chipmunks. He told me the trap wasn’t for chipmunks, but for red squirrels. They caused a lot of trouble, he said, so he was trying to trap all the local ones. The spaces between the wires on the trap’s cage, he pointed out, were big enough for chipmunks to escape through them, but they were too small for red squirrels to fit through. He said he took the squirrels that he caught several miles away to release them, and they didn’t come back. He added that many of his neighbors on the lake were doing the same thing.
The next day I saw firsthand why he didn’t like the red squirrels. I was sitting in one of the chairs by myself and several chipmunks approached me from different directions. I yelled to my friend about what was happening. He came out from the cabin’s screened patio with a handful of sunflower seeds, threw them onto a nearby bare spot on the ground, and went back inside. The chipmunks immediately ran to the seeds and began stuffing them in their cheek pouches as fast as they could. There were a lot of arguments among the chipmunks about who got the seeds. They chased each other around a lot, while stopping just long enough to pick up another seed or two. One or two of them appeared to be dominant, but all them got at least one chance to grab some seeds.
Then a red squirrel showed up. First, he sat in the tree above the bare spot and yelled at the chipmunks. It was obvious that he was telling them that all of the seeds were his. They ignored him until he ran down the tree and began to chase them. But the way he chased them was different from the way the chipmunks chased each other. He didn’t want to just argue about who got the most seeds, he was trying to hurt the chipmunks. He would charge onto the bare spot and all of the chipmunks would scatter. He’d pick one out and chase it with his teeth bared for a relatively long distance before giving up and returning to the seeds. Then he’d discover the other chipmunks had been busy gathering more seeds while he’d been away, and he’d pick out another chipmunk and chase it while the other chipmunks immediately returned to the bare spot to get more seeds. It appeared that the chipmunks understood they could get more seeds if they took turns keeping the squirrel busy.
In the end, the red squirrel was so busy trying to bully the chipmunks that he got very few seeds.