Japanese Attack Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941

Imperial Japanese Navy Flag
Imperial Japanese Navy Flag

On Sunday, December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Navy launched a surprise attack against U.S. military bases on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. This Attack on Pearl Harbor, as it came to be known, was a major turning point in WWII.

The following day President Franklin D. Roosevelt addressed a joint session of the U.S. Congress and called for a formal declaration of war against the Empire of Japan.

“Yesterday, December 7, 1941 – a date which will live in infamy – the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan,” Roosevelt famously proclaimed. In less than an hour Congress had declared war on Japan.

Four days later, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany unilaterally declared war on the U.S., ensuring that America would enter the war in Europe too. Many of the German dictator Adolf Hitler’s military leaders, along with a large portion of the German population, thought it was a fatal error. Hitler wasn’t obligated to help Japan because the Tripartite Pact he’d signed with Japan in 1940 said Germany only had to help the Japan if they were attacked, not if they were the attackers. But Hitler hated Roosevelt, and his eloquent anti-fascist rhetoric, and was convinced that Japan would defeat the U.S.

Years later, in his diary, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill wrote about how he felt when he heard the news that the U.S. had finally joined the war.

“No American will think it wrong of me if I proclaim that to have the United States at our side was to me the greatest joy. I could not fortell the course of events. I do not pretend to have measured accurately the martial might of Japan, but now at this very moment I knew the United States was in the war, up to the neck and in to the death. So we had won after all! … Hitler’s fate was sealed. Mussolini’s fate was sealed. As for the Japanese, they would be ground to powder.”

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