Research: Livestock Grazing On Public Lands

Scientific research applicable to livestock grazing permitted on public lands managed by the U.S. Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Not an exhaustive list, but periodically updated.


Airola, D. A. 1986. Brown-Headed Cowbird Parasitism and Habitat Disturbance in the Sierra Nevada. Journal of Wildlife Management 50(4): 571-575.

Anderson, D.C., K.T. Harper and S.R. Rushforth. 1982. Recovery of Cryptogamic Soil Crusts from Grazing on Utah Winter Ranges. Journal of Range Management 35(3): 355-359.

Anderson, J.E., and K.E. Holte. 1981. Vegetation Development Over 25 Years Without Grazing on Sagebrush-Dominated Rangeland in Southeastern Idaho. Journal of Range Management 34:25-29.

Atwill, R. 1995. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cattle: Implications for Public Health and Land Use Restrictions. Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library, U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C.

Bahre, C.J. 1987. Wild Hay Harvesting in Southern Arizona: A Casualty of the March of Progress. Journal of Arizona History 28:69-78.

Bartolome, J.W. 1993. Application of Herbivore Optimization Theory to Rangelands of the Western United States. Ecological Applications 3(1):27-29.

Belsky, A.J. 1986. Does Herbivory Benefit Plants? A Review of the Evidence. The American Naturalist 127:870-892.

Belsky, A.J. 1987. The Effects of Grazing: Confounding Ecosystem, Community, and Organism Scales. American Naturalist 127:870-892.

Belsky, A.J., W.P. Carson, C.J. Jensen, and G.A. Fox. 1993. Overcompensation by Plants: Herbivore Optimization or Red Herring? Evolutionary Ecology 7:109-121.

Belsky, A.J., and D.M. Blumenthal. 1997. Effects of Livestock Grazing on Stand Dynamics and Soils in Upland Forests of the Interior West. Conservation Biology 11(2):315-327.

Bock, C.E., and B. Webb. 1984. Birds as a grazing indicator species in Southeastern Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:1045-1049

Bock, C. E., and J.H. Bock, W.R. Kenney, V.M. Hawthorne. 1984. Responses of Birds, Rodents, and Vegetation to Livestock Exclosure in a Semidesert Grassland Site. Journal of Range Management 37(3): 239-242.

Bock, C.E., and J.H. Bock. 1993. Cover of Perennial Grasses in Southeastern Arizona in Relation to Livestock Grazing. Conservation Biology 7(2):371-377.

Bock, C.E., L. Kennedy, J. H. Bock, and Z. F. Jones. 2007. Effects of Fire Frequency and Intensity on Velvet Mesquite in an Arizona Grassland. Journal of Range Management 60(5):508-514.

Brady, W.W., M.R. Stromberg, E.F. Aldon, C.D. Bonham, and S.H. Henry. 1989. Response of Semidesert Grassland to 16 Years of Rest from Grazing. Journal of Range Management 42(4):284-288.

Briske, D.D. 1993. Grazing Optimization: A Plea for a Balanced Perspective. Ecological Applications 3(1):24-26

Brown, D.E. 1997. Water for Wildlife: Belief Before Science. Symposium on Environmental, Economic, and Legal Issues Related to Rangeland Water Developments, November 13-15, 1997. Arizona State University College of Law, Tempe, AZ.

Broyles, B. 1995. Desert Wildlife Water Developments: Questioning Use in the Southwest. Wildlife Society Bulletin 23(4):663-675.

Broyles, B. 1997. Reckoning Real Costs and Secondary Benefits of Artificial Game Waters in Southwestern Arizona. Symposium on Environmental, Economic, and Legal Issues Related to Rangeland Water Developments, November 13-15, 1997. Arizona State University College of Law, Tempe, AZ.

Brunson, M. W., and B.S. Steel. 1993. Public Attitudes Toward Federal Rangeland Management: Results of National and Oregon Surveys. Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University, Logan, UT.

Bryant, F.C., B.E. Dahl, R.D. Pettit, and C.M. Britton. 1989. Does Short-Duration Grazing Work in Arid and Semiarid Regions? Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 44:290-296.

Buret, A., and N. deHollander, P.M. Wallis, D. Befus, and M.E. Olson. 1990. Zoonotic Potential of Giardiasis in Domestic Ruminants. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 162: 231-237.

Burkett, D.W., and B.C. Thompson. 1994. Wildlife Association with Human-Altered Water Sources in Semiarid Vegetation Communities. Conservation Biology 8(3):682-690.

Burkhardt, J.W. and E.W. Tisdale. 1976. Causes of Juniper Invasion in Southwestern Idaho. Ecology 76:472-484.

Carter, J., A. Jones, M. O’Brien, J. Ratner, and G. Wuerthner. 2014. Holistic Management: Misinformation on the Science of Grazed Ecosystems. International Journal of Biodiversity Volume 2014, Article ID 163431.

Carter, J., J.C. Catlin, N. Hurwitz, A.L. Jones, and J. Ratner. 2017.  Upland Water and Deferred Rotation Effects on Cattle Use in Riparian and Upland Areas. Rangelands 39(3-4):  112-118.

Cave, G. H., and D.T. Patten. 1984. Short-Term Vegetation Responses to Fire in the Upper Sonoran Desert. Journal of Range Management 37(6): 491-496.

Chaney, E., W. Elmore, and W.S. Platts. 1990. Livestock Grazing on Western Riparian Areas. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Compton, B.B., R.J. Mackie, and G.L. Dusek. 1988. Factors Influencing Distribution of White-Tailed Deer in Riparian Habitats. Journal of Wildlife Management 52(3):544-548.

Cooperrider, A.Y., and D.S. Wilcove. 1995. Defending the Desert: Conserving Biodiversity on BLM Lands in the Southwest. Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY.

Croxen, F. W. 1926. History of Grazing on the Tonto National Forest. Tonto National Forest, Phoenix, AZ

Davis, G. P. 1982. Man and Wildlife in Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.

Dormaar, J.F., S. Smoliak, and W.D. Wilms. 1989. Vegetation and Soil Responses to Short-Duration Grazing on Fescue Grasslands. Journal of Range Management 42:252-256.

Fleischner, T.L. 1994. Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America. Conservation Biology 8:629-644

Forsling, C.L. 1931. A Study of the Influence of Herbaceous Plant Cover on Surface Run-Off and Soil Erosion in Relation to Grazing on the Wasatch Plateau in Utah. Technical Bulletin 220. U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C.

Gallizioli, S. 1961. Water and Gambel quail. Arizona Game and Fish Department Bulletin. Phoenix, AZ.

Galt, D., F. Molinar, J. Navarro, J. Joseph, and J. Holecheck. 2000. Grazing Capacity and Stocking Rate. Rangelands. 22(6):6-11.

Hadley, N.F., and S.R. Szarek. 1981. Productivity of Desert Ecosystems. BioScience 31:747-753.

Hanley, T.A., and W.W. Brady. 1977. Feral Burro Impact on a Sonoran Desert Range. Journal of Range Management 30(5):374-377.

Harper, K.T., and L.L. St. Clair. 1985. Cryptogamic Soil Crusts on Arid and Semiarid Rangelands in Utah: Effects on Seedling Establishment and Soil Salinity. Final Report on BLM Contract #BLM AA 851-CTI-48.

Holechek, J.L. 1988. An Approach for Setting the Stocking Rate. Rangelands 10(1):10-14.

Holechek, J. L., and K. Hess Jr. 1995. The Emergency Feed Program. Rangelands 17(4):133-136.

Holechek, J.L., H. Gomes, F. Molinar, D. Galt, and R. Valdez. 1999. Short-Duration Grazing: The Facts in 1999. Rangelands 22(1):18-22.

Humphrey, R.R. 1949. Fire as a Means of Controlling Velvet Mesquite, Burroweed, and Cholla on Southern Arizona Ranges. Journal of Range Management 2:175-182.

Humphrey, R.R. 1953. The Desert Grassland, Past and Present. Journal of Range Management 6(3):159-164.

Humphrey, R.R., and L.A. Mehrhoff. 1958. Vegetation Changes on a Southern Arizona Grassland Range. Ecology 39(4):720-726.

Johansen, J.R. 1993. Cryptogamic Crusts of Semiarid and Arid Lands of North America. Journal of Phycology 29:140-147.

Kauffman, J. Boone, and W.C. Krueger, M. Vavra. 1983. Impacts of Cattle on Streambanks in Northeastern Oregon. Journal of Range Management 36(6): 683-685.

Kauffman, J. B. and W.C. Krueger. 1984. Livestock Impacts on Riparian Ecosystems and Streamside Management Implications: A Review. Journal of Range Management 37:430 438.

Kie, J. G., C. J. Evans, E. R. Loft, and J. W. Menke. 1991. Foraging Behavior by Mule Deer: The Influence of Cattle Grazing. Journal of Wildlife Management. 55(1): 665-674.

Krausman, P. R., K. R. Rautenstrauch, and B. D. Leopold. 1985. Xeroriparian systems used by desert mule deer in Texas and Arizona. Pages in R. Johnson et al., editors. Riparian ecosystems and their management: reconciling conflicting uses. U. S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-120:1-523.

Krausman, P. R., and R.C. Etchberger. 1995. Responses of Desert Ungulates to a Water Project in Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Management 59(2):292-300.

Krausman, P. R. 1996. Rangeland Wildlife. The Society for Range Management, Denver, CO.

Krausman, P.R., and B. Czech. 1997. Water Developments and Desert Ungulates. Symposium on Environmental, Economic, and Legal Issues Related to Rangeland Water Developments, November 13-15, 1997. Arizona State University College of Law, Tempe, AZ.

Ladyman, J.A.R., and E. Muldavin. 1996. Terrestrial Cryptogams of Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands in the Southwestern United States. General Technical Report RM-GTR-280. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Laycock, W.A. 1991. Stable States and Thresholds of Range Condition on North American Rangelands: A Viewpoint. Journal of Range Management 44:427-433.

Loft, E. R., J. W. Menke, J. G. Kie, and R. C. Bertram. 1987. Influence of Cattle Stocking Rate on the Structural Profile of Deer Hiding Cover. Journal of Wildlife Management. 51(1): 655-664.

Loft, E. R., J. W. Menke, and J. G. Kie. 1991. Habitat Shifts by Mule Deer: The Influence of Cattle Grazing. Journal of Wildlife Management. 55(1):16-26.

Loomis, J.B., E. R. Loft, and D. R Updike, and J. G. Kie. 1991. Cattle-Deer Interactions in the Sierra Nevada: A Bioeconomic Approach. Journal of Range Management. 44(4): 395-399.

Lowdermilk, W.C. 1930. Influence of Forest Litter on Run-Off, Percolation and Erosion. Journal of Forestry 28:474-491.

Lull, H.W. 1959. Soil Compaction on Forest and Range Lands. Miscellaneous Publication #768. U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C.

Mack, R. N., and J. N. Thompson. 1982. Evolution in Steppe with Few Large, Hooved Animals. The American Naturalist 119(6): 757-773.

Marble, J.R., and K.T. Harper. 1989. Effect of Timing of Grazing on Soil-Surface Cryptogamic Communities in a Great Basin Low-Shrub Desert: A Preliminary Report. Great Basin Naturalist 49(1): 104-107.

Marshal, J.P., V. C. Bleich, P. R. Krausman, M. L. Reed, and N. G. Andrew. 2006. Factors Affecting Habitat Use and Distribution of Desert Mule Deer in an Arid Environment. Wildlife Society Bulletin 34(3):609-619.

McAuliffe, J.R. 1997. Rangeland Water Developments: Conservation Solution or Illusion? Symposium on Environmental, Economic, and Legal Issues Related to Rangeland Water Developments, November 13-15, 1997. Arizona State University College of Law, Tempe, AZ.

McLaughlin, S. P., and J.E. Bowers. 1982. Effects of Wildfire on a Sonoran Desert Plant Community. Ecology 63(1): 246-248.

Milchunas, D.G. 2006. Responses of plant communities to grazing in the southwestern United States. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-169.

Painter, E.L., and A.J. Belsky. 1993. Application of Herbivore Optimization Theory to Rangelands of the Western United States. Ecological Applications 3(1):2-9.

Patten, D.T. 1993. Herbivore Optimization and Overcompensation: Does Native Herbivory on Western Rangelands Support These Theories? Ecological Perspectives 3(1):35-36.

Poessel, S.A., J.C. Hagar, P.K. Haggerty, and T.E. Katzner. 2019. Removal of cattle grazing correlates with increases in vegetation productivity and in abundance of imperiled breeding birds. Biological Conservation 241

Ralphs, M.H., M.M. Kothmann, and C.A. Taylor. 1990. Vegetation Response to Increased Stocking Rates in Short-Duration Grazing. Journal of Range Management 43:104-108.

Reynolds, R.V. 1911. Grazing and Floods: A study of Conditions in the Manti National Forest, Utah. Forest Service Bulletin #91. U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C.

Rinne, J. N., and W.L. Minckley. 1991. Native Fishes of Arid Lands: A Dwindling Resource of the Desert Southwest. General Technical Report RM-206. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Rummell, R.S. 1951. Some Effects of Livestock Grazing on Ponderosa Pine Forest and Range in Central Washington. Ecology 32:594-607.

Rutman, S. 1997. Dirt is Not Cheap: Livestock Grazing and a Legacy of Accelerated Soil Erosion on Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. Symposium on Environmental, Economic, and Legal Issues Related to Rangeland Water Developments, November 13-15, 1997. Arizona State University College of Law, Tempe, AZ.

Schmutz, E.M., D.R. Cable, and J.J. Warwick. 1959. Effects of Shrub Removal on The Vegetation of a Semidesert Grass/Shrub Range. Journal of Range Management 12(1):34-37.

Schmutz, E.M., and D.A. Smith. 1976. Successional Classification of Plants on a Desert Grassland Site in Arizona. Journal of Range Management 29: 476-479.

Simms, J. 1997. Some Effects of Stock Tanks on Aquatic Biodiversity in Arizona Streams. Symposium on Environmental, Economic, and Legal Issues Related to Rangeland Water Developments, November 13-15, 1997. Arizona State University College of Law, Tempe, AZ.

Souder, J.A. 1997. How Does Livestock Grazing Fit Into the Larger Societal Uses of Wildlands? Symposium on Environmental, Economic, and Legal Issues Related to Rangeland Water Developments, November 13-15, 1997. Arizona State University College of Law, Tempe, AZ.

Souder, J. A. 1997. Valuing Resources and Uses in the Central Winter Ecosystem Management Area, North Kaibab Ranger District. A Report Prepared for the Kaibab National Forest, Fredonia, AZ.

Sponholtz, P.J., D.C. Redondo, B.P. Deason, L.M. Sychowski, and J.N. Rinne. 1997. The Influence of Stock Tanks on Native Fishes: Upper Verde River, Arizona. Symposium on Environmental, Economic, and Legal Issues Related to Rangeland Water Developments, November 13-15, 1997. Arizona State University College of Law, Tempe, AZ.

Stephenson, G.R., and A. Veigel. 1987. Recovery of Compacted Soil on Pastures Used for Winter Cattle Feeding. Journal of Range Management 40:46-48.

Taylor, C.A. 1989. Short-Duration Grazing: Experiences from the Edwards Plateau Region in Texas. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 44: 297-302.

Taylor, D. M. 1986. Effects of Cattle Grazing on Passerine Birds Nesting in Riparian Habitat. Journal of Range Management 39(3): 254-258.

Thurow, T.L., W.H Blackburn, and C.A. Taylor Jr. 1986. Hydrological Characteristics of Vegetation Types as Affected by Livestock Grazing Systems, Edwards Plateau, Texas. Journal of Range Management 39:505-509.

Trimble, S.W., and A.C. Mendel. 1995. The Cow as a Geomorphic Agent-A Critical Review. Geomorphology. 13:233-253.

Wallace, M. C., and P. R. Krausman. 1987. Elk, mule deer, and cattle habitats in central Arizona. Journal of Range Management 40:80-83.

Wallace, G.N., J.E. Mitchell, and M.D. Wells. 1996. Visitor Perceptions About Grazing on a Forest Service Cattle Allotment. Research Paper RM-RP-321. U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Warren, P.L., and L.S. Anderson. 1987. Technical Report #20: Vegetation Recovery Following Livestock Removal Near Quitobaquito Spring, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

Warren, S.D., W.H. Blackburn, and C.A. Taylor Jr. 1986. Effects of Season and Stage of Rotation Cycle on Hydrologic Condition of Rangeland Under Intensive Rotation Grazing. Journal of Range Management 39:486-491.

Warren, S.D., T.L. Thurow, W.H. Blackburn, and N.E. Garza. 1986. The Influence of Livestock Trampling under Intensive Rotation Grazing on Soil Hydrologic Characteristics. Journal of Range Management 39:491-495.

Warren, S.D., W.H. Blackburn, and C.A. Taylor Jr. 1986. Soil Hydrologic Response to Number of Pastures and Stocking Density under Intensive Rotation Grazing. Journal of Range Management 39:500-504.

Weltz, M., and M.K. Wood. 1986. Short-Duration Grazing in Central New Mexico: Effects on Sediment Production. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation July-August 262-266.

Weltz, M., and M.K. Wood. 1986. Short Duration Grazing in Central New Mexico: Effects on Infiltration Rates. Journal of Range Management 39:365-368.

Weltz, M., M.K. Wood, and E.E. Parker. 1989. Flash Grazing and Trampling: Effects on Infiltration Rates and Sediment Yield on a Selected New Mexico Range Site. Journal of Arid Environments 16:95-100.

Weltzin, J.F., S. Archer, and R.K. Heitschmidt. 1997. Small Mammal Regulation of Vegetation Structure in a Temperate Savanna. Ecology 78(3): 751-763.

Westoby, M., B. Walker, and I. Noy-Meir. 1989. Opportunistic Management of Rangelands not at Equilibrium. Journal of Range Management 42:266-274.

Whitford, W.G., R. Repass, L.W. Parker, and N.Z. Elkins. 1982. Effects of Initial Litter Accumulation and Climate on Litter Disappearance in a Desert Ecosystem. The American Midland Naturalist 108: 105-110.

Williamson, M.A., E. Fleishman, R.C. MacNally, et al. 2019. Fire, livestock grazing, topography, and precipitation affect occurrence and prevalence of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in the central Great Basin, USA. Biological Invasions 21

Wilson, R.C., M.G. Norag, A.L. Koonce, and B.M. Corcoran. 1995. Postfire Regeneration in Arizona’s Giant Saguaro Community. U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-264. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Winkel, V.K., and B.A. Roundy. 1991. Effects of Cattle Trampling and Mechanical Seedbed Preparation on Grass Seedling Emergence. Journal of Range Management 44:176-180.

Young, J.A. and R.A. Evans. 1981. Demography and Fire History of a Western Juniper Stand. Journal of Range Management 34:501-506.

Zwartjes, P.W., J.E. Cartron, P.L. Stoleson, W.C. Haussamen, and T.E. Crane. 2005. Assessment of Native Species and Ungulate Grazing in the Southwest: Terrestrial WildlifeU.S. Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-142. Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ft. Collins, CO.

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